posted May 11, 2008 09:56 PM
This Is Appendix 12 From The Companion Bible.
"The Stars Also".
In the first mention of the heavenly bodies, the purpose of the Creator is clearly stated. Genesis 1:14-19 reveals the fact that they were created, not only "to divide the day from the night, and to give light upon the earth"; but, they were set "for SIGNS, and for SEASONS, and for days and years".
The figure Polysyndeton (see Appendix 6) emphasises these four purposes, and bids us single them out and consider them separately and independtly.
They are "for SIGNS".
Hebrew 'oth, from 'athah, to come. Signs, therefore, of something or some One to come. Those who understand them are enlightened by them. Those who do not may well be "dismayed" (Jeremiah 10:2).
The stars are numbered and named. There are twelve signs of the Zodiac, called "the stars" Genesis 37:9 (eleven of which bowed down to Joseph's, the twelfth). The word Zodiac means the degrees or steps, which mark the stages of the sun's path through the heavens, corresponding with the twelve months.
The stars were all named by God (Psalm 147:4). Most of these names have been lost; but over 100 are preserved through the Arabic and Hebrew, and are used by astronomers to-day, though their meaning is unknown to them. Many of them are used in Scripture as being well known, though the translations are somewhat speculative: for example Job 9:9. Hebrew 'ash (Arcturus, Revised Version the Bear), kesil (Authorized Version Orion), kimah (Pleiades). Job 38:31, 32, mazzaroth (margin, and Revised Version, the twelve signs; margin, the signs of the Zodiac). Compare 2 Kings 23:5, 'ash (Arcturus with her sons, Revised Version the Bear with her train, both versions being incorrect as to the names). See also Isaiah 13:10. Amos 5:8.
These names and the twelve "signs" go back to the foundation of the world. Jewish tradition, preserved by Josephus, assures us that this Bible astronomy was invented by Adam, Seth and Enoch.
We see evidence of it as early as Genesis 11:4, where we read of the Tower of Babel having "his top with the heavens". There is nothing about the wrongly supplied italics "may reach unto". The words, doubtless, refer to the signs of the Zodiac, pictured at the top of the Tower, like the Zodiacs in the Temples of Denderah, and Esneh in Egypt.
The Babylonian "Creation Tablets" refer to them, though their primitve meaning had been either corrupted or lost. It is the same with the Greek mythology, which is a corruption of primitive truth which had been lost and perverted.
We have to remember that our written Scriptures began with Moses, say in 1490 B. C. : and thus, for more than 2,500 years, the revelation of the hope which God gave in Genesis 3:15 was preserved in the naming of the stars and their grouping in Signs and Constellations.
These groupings are quite arbitrary. There is nothing in the positions of the stars to suggest the pictures originally drawn around them. The Signs and Constellations were first designed and named; then, the pictures were drawn around them respectively. Thus the truth was enshrined and written in the heavens, where no human hand could touch it. In later years, when Israel came into the possession of the written "Scriptures of truth", there was no longer any need for the more ancient writing in the heavens. Hence, the original teaching gradually faded away and the heathen, out of the smattering they had heard by tradition, evolved their cosmogonies and mythologies.
Psalm 19 contains a vivid reference to these two Books of revelation. That is why there is the very sudden change of subject at verse 7; a change which still perplexes and baffles all the skill of commentators.
The teaching is preserved in the structure of the Psalm, where we have
A | 1 - 4 -. The Heavens.
B | - 4 - 6. "In them, the sun".
A | 7 - 10. The Scriptures.
B | 11 - 14. "In them 1, Thy servant".
In this structure every line emphasises the elaboration of the design: for, while, in the first half, all the terms are literary, in the latter half they are all astronomical, thus welding the two portions of the Psalm into one harmonious whole.
For the meaning of the words, reference must be made to the Psalm itself. We can only note here that the first part does not refer to the wonders of creation, but to the eloquence of its teaching and revelation: they "declare", tell, or narrate (Genesis 24:66. Psalm 71:15), they "utter speech", but without words (omit "where" in verse 3); Hebrew = they "show forth", exhibit (Genesis 3:11. Psalm 97:6; 111:6); they prophesy "day by day", "night by night". The question is: What do they prophesy? What knowledge do they show forth? What glory do they tell of?
The answer is - Genesis 3:15. The one great central truth of all prophecy - the coming One, Who, though He should suffer, should in the end crush the head of the old serpent, the Devil.
But, where are we to open this book? Where are we to break into this circle of the Zodiacal signs?
Through the "precession of the Equinoxes" the sun gradually shifts its position a little each year, till in about every 2,000 years it begins the year in a different sign. This was foreseen; and it was also foreseen that succeeding generations would not know when and where the sun began its course, and where the teaching of this Heavenly Book commenced, and where we were to open its first page. Hence the "Sphinx" was invented as a memorial. It had the head of a woman and the body and tail of a lion, to tell us that this Book, written in the Heavens, began with the sign "Virgo", and will end with the sign "Leo". The word "sphinx" is from the Greek sphingo, to join; because it binds together the two ends of this circle of the heavens.
The number of the Signs is twelve, the number of governmental perfection or "rule": compare Genesis 1:18 (Appendix 10). They are divided into three books of four chapters (or signs) each: twelve being the product of 3 x 4. that is to say, of Divine truth working in the heavens and in the earth (see Appendix 10).
Each book, therefore, consists of four signs; and these are all arranged, by structure, in exactly the same way. Each is an introversion. Thus we have the three books:
First Book. The Redeemer.
(His first coming).
A | VIRGO. The prophecy of the promised seed.
B | LIBRA. The Redeemer's work (grace).
B | SCORPIO. The Redeemer's conflict.
A | SAGITTARIUS. The prophecy fulfilled.
Second Book. The Redeemed.
(His work and its results).
C | CAPRICORNUS. The prophecy of deliverance.
D | AQUARIUS. Results of work bestowed.
D | PISCES. Results of work enjoyed.
C | ARIES. The prophesied deliverance fulfilled.
Third Book. The Redeemer.
(His Second Coming. )
E | TAURUS. The prophecy of coming judgment.
F | GEMINI. The Redeemer's reign in glory.
F | CANCER. The Redeemer's possession safe.
E | LEO. The prophecy of triumph fulfilled.
Each of the four chapters in each of these three books consists of three sections; and each section is represented by a Constellation. There are thus thirty-six (3 x 12) Constellations, which, with the twelve Signs, make forty-eight (4 x 12) in all.
They may thus be set forth :
The First Book. The Redeemer.
"The sufferings of Christ. "
The prophecy of the promised seed.
COMA. (= The desired). The woman and child the desired of all nations (in the most ancient Zodiacs).
CENTAURUS (with two natures). The despised sin-offering.
BOOTES. The coming One with branch.
The Redeemer's atoning work.
CRUX. The Cross endured.
LUPUS. The Victim slain.
CORONA. The Crown bestowed.
The Redeemer's conflict.
SERPENS. Assaulting the man's heel.
OPHIUCHUS. The man grasping the serpent.
HERCULES. The mighty man victorious.
The Redeemer's triumph.
LYRA. Praise prepared for the Conqueror.
ARA. Fire prepared for His enemies.
DRACO. The dragon cast down.
The Second Book. The Redeemed.
The result of the Redeemer's sufferings.
SAGITTA. The arrow of God sent forth.
AQUILA. The smitten One falling.
DELPHINUS. The dead One rising again.
The Blessings assured.
PISCIS AUSTRALIS. The blessings bestowed.
PEGASUS. The blessings quickly coming.
CYGNUS. The Blesser surely returning.
The Blessings in abeyance.
THE BAND. The great enemy, "Cetus. "
ANDROMEDA. The redeemed in bondage.
CEPHEUS. The Deliverer coming to loosen.
The Blessings consummated.
CASSIOPEIA. The captive delivered.
CETUS. The great enemy bound.
PERSEUS. The "Breaker" delivering.
The Third Book. The Redeemer.
"The glory that should follow. "
Messiah coming to rule.
ORION. The Redeemer breaking forth as Light.
ERIDANUS. Wrath breaking forth as a flood.
AURIGA. Safety for His redeemed in the day of wrath.
Messiah as Prince of princes.
LEPUS. The enemy trodden under foot.
CANIS MAJOR. The coming glorious Prince.
CANIS MINOR. The exalted Redeemer.
Messiah's redeemed possessions.
URSA MINOR. The lesser sheepfold.
URSA MAJOR. The fold and the flock.
ARGO. The pilgrim's arrival at home.
Messiah's consummated triumph.
HYDRA. The old serpent destroyed.
CRATER. The cup of wrath poured put.
CORVUS. The birds of prey devouring.
It will be noted that the modern names are used, but only for the purpose of readier identification. Some of these names were given in ignorance by those who had lost the primitive signification of the twelve Signs and of the thirty-six Constellations.
The Hebrew and Arabic names of these, and of the principal stars contained in them, are full of truth and eloquent in their teaching. Thus:
VIRGO the (Virgin). Here we have the star AL Zimach. Hebrew Zemach, the branch. Isaiah 4:2. Jeremiah 23:5, 6. Zechariah 3:8; 6:12. All the other stars have cognate meanings.
COMA. The Desired (Haggai 2:7). Numbers 24:17. (Egyptian Shes-nu = the desired son. )
CENTAURUS, Al Beze, the despised (Isaiah 53:3).
BOOTES (Hebrew bo', to come), Psalm 96:13. Hebrew Arcturus (Job 9:9 = He cometh). Egyptian = Smat, one who rules.
LIBRA was anciently the Altar (Accadian = Tulki). The two bright stars are to-day called in Arabic Zuben al Genubi = the price which is deficient, and Zuben al Chemali = the price which covers.
CRUX. Hebrew karath, cut off (Daniel 9:26).
LUPUS. Greek name Thera, a beast. Latin Victima. Hebrew zabah, slain. In the Zodiac of Denderah = Sura, a lamb.
CORONA. Hebrew 'atarah, a royal crown. Arabic Al iclil, a jewel. Its brightest star = Al phena, the shining one.
SCORPIO. Hebrew 'akrab (Psalm 91:13). Coptic name = Isidis = the attack of th enemy. Arabic = Al aterah, the wounding of the coming One. The brightest star is Antares (Arabic = wounding). Hebrew Lezuth, perverseness.
SERPENS. The brightest star is called (Hebrew) 'anak = encompassing. Hebrew Kelalah = the accursed. Arabic Al hay, the reptile.
OPHIUCHUS is from Arabic Afeichus = the serpent held. The brightest star is Ras al hagus = the head of him holds. Other names are Megeras = contending. In the Zodiac of Denderah he is Api-bau = the chief who cometh. Other stars are Triophas = treading under foot; Saiph = bruised; Carnebas = bruised.
HERCULES. In the Zodiac of Denderah called Bau = who cometh. Arabic Al giscale, the strong one. The brightest star, Ras al Gethi = the head of him who bruises.
SAGITTARIUS. Hebrew kesheth (an archer) (Genesis 21:20). The brightest star, Hebrew channun = the gracious one (Psalm 45:2). Accadian, Nun-ki = Prince of the earth. In Zodiac of Denderah, Pi-maere = graciousness, and Knem, He conquers.
LYRA. (Psalm 65:1). The brightest star Vega = He shall be exalted. In the Zodiac of Denderah = Fent-kar = the serpent ruled. Originally an eagle, from confusion between Hebrew nesher, and shir (song or music).
ARA, an altar upside down, pointing to Tartarus (Isaiah 63:4, 5). Arabic Al mugamra = the completing or finishing (Psalm 21:9 - 12).
DRACO. Ends the first book, The dragon cast down. CETUS ends the second book. Levia-than bound. HYDRA ends the third book. The old serpent destroyed. Draco = trodden on. (Psalm 91:13; 74:12 - 14. Isaiah 27:1). In Zodiac of Denderah it is a serpent under the fore-feet of Sagittarius and called Her-fent = the serpent accursed. The brightest star called Thuban = the subtil.
CAPRICORNUS = the goat of atonement. In Zodiac of Denderah and Esneh, Hu-penius = the place of sacrifice. Hebrew Gedi, the kid, or Gad'a, cut off. The brightest star is Al-gedi = the kid. The next is Deneb al gedi = the sacrifice of the kid.
SAGITTA, the arrow. (Psalm 38:2. Isaiah 53:4, 5. ) Hebrew Shamad, or shamem = destroying.
AQUILA, the eagle, pierced and wounded and falling. The brightest star, Al tair = wounding. All the others are similar.
DELPHINUS. Always a fish full of life, the head upwards. Hebrew Dălaph = the pouring out of water. Arabic Dalaph = coming quickly.
AQUARIUS. In the Zodiac of Denderah he has two urns. The fish seems to have come out of one of them. Hebrew name Dali = water-urn or bucket (Numbers 24:7). Brightest star Sa'ad al Melik = the record of the pouring forth. The next Sa'ad al Sund = who goeth and returneth (compare Isaiah 32:1, 2; 35:1, 6; 41:18; 44:2 - 6; 51:3).
PISCIS AUSTRALIS. The southern fish. Arabic Fom al haut = the mouth of the fish. Zodiac of Denderah = Aar, a stream.
PEGASUS. The winged horse. Zodiac of Denderah Pe and ka = Peka, or pega. Hebrew pehah = the chief, and sus, a horse; name thus come down. The brightest is Markab, Hebrew merhak = returning from afar.
CYGNUS. In the Zodiac of Denderah, Tes-ark = this from afar. A mighty bird, not falling dead like Aquila. Brightest star Deneb = the Judge; called also Adige = flying swiftly. The second, Al Bireo = flying quickly. Two others: Azel = who goes and returns quickly, and Fafage = gloriously shining forth.
PISCES. Egyptian name in the Zodiac or Denerah = Pi-cot Orion or Pisces Hori = the fishes (that is to say, swarms or multitudes) of Him Who cometh. Hebrew Dagim, the fishes (Genesis 48:16). Syriac name, Nuno = lengthened out (that is to say, in posterity). Compare Isaiah 53:10. Psalm 33:12; 37:22; 115:14, 15. Isaiah 61:9; 65:23; 26:15; 9:3. Jeremiah 30:19. Ezekiel 36:10, 11; 37:26. Note the two fishes= the earthly and heavenly callings (one fish horizontal, the other looking upward). 113 stars much of the same magnitude. The brightest star is Okda = the united. The next (Arabic) Al samaca = the upheld. (Isaiah 41:8 - 10. )
THE BAND. Egyptian name U-or = He cometh binding them together (Hosea 11:4); and breaking the band which binds them to their old enemy Cetus.
ANDROMEDA. Name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Set, which means seated as a queen. Also, Sirco = the chained. The brightest star is Al Phiratz = the broken down. The next, Mirach = the weak. The next, Al amok (Arabic) = struck down. (Isaiah 54:11 - 14; 51:21 - 52:3. Jeremiah 14:17. )
CEPHUS. The king. In the Zodiac of Denderah Pe-ku-hor = this one cometh to rule. Cepheus is Greek from the Hebrew zemah = the Branch. Ethiopian name, Hyh = a king. The brightest star is Al Deramin = coming quickly. The next is Al Phirk = the Redeemer. The next, Al Rai' = who bruises or breaks. (Jeremiah 31:1. )
ARIES. The ram or lamb full of vigour. Not falling in death like Capricornus. The name in the Zodiac of Denderah Tametouris Ammon = the reign or rule Ammon. Hebrew name Taleh = the lamb. Arabic Al Hamel = the sheep. Syriac Amroo, as in John 1:29. The Accadian name was Bar-Ziggar = the altar making right = the sacrifice of righteousness. The brightest star is El nath or El natik = wounded, or slain. The next, Al Sharatan = the bruised, or wounded. Compare Revelation 5:9 - 12.
CASSIOPEIA. The enthroned woman. Arabic name El seder = the freed. In the Zodiac of Denderah Set = seated as queen. Arabic Ruchba = the enthroned. The brightest star is Schedir = the freed. The next, Kaph (Hebrew ) = the branch. (Isaiah 54:5 -8; 62:3 -5. Jeremiah 31:3 -12. Psalm 45:9 - 17. Isaiah 61:10, 11. )
CETUS. The sea monster. The great enemy bound (Revelation 20:10; compare 20:1 - 3). The name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Knem = subdued. The brightest star is Menkar = the enemy chained. The next is Diphda or Deneb Kaitos = overthrown, or thrust down. Another is Mira = therebel. (Job 41:1 -10. Isaiah 51:22, 23; 26:21 - 27:1. Psalm 74:12 - 14. )
PERSEUS. The Breaker. Hebrew Perez. Greek, Perses, or Perseus (Romans 16:12. Micah 2:12, 13). Name in Zodiac of Denderah is Kar Knem = he who fights and subdues. The brightest star is Mirfak = who helps. The next, Al Genib = who carries away. The next is Athik = who breaks.
TAURUS Messiah coming in judgment. Chaldee Tor. Hence, Arabic Al Thaur; Greek, Tauros; Latin Taurus. The common Hebrew name is Shur = coming and ruling, and Re'em = pre-eminence. The brightest star in Al Debaran = the Leader or Governor. The next is El nath = wounded or slain. The group Pleiades is Kimah = heap or accumulation. (Job 9:9; 38:31, 32. Amos 5:8. ) A bright star is Al Cyone = the centre. Hebrew and Syriac name is Succoth = booths. Another group, Hyades = the congregated. (Deuteronomy 33:17. Psalm 44:5. Isaiah 13:11 -15; 34:2 - 8; 26:21. )
ORION. The coming Prince. Light breaking forth, through the Redeemer. In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Ha-ga-t = this is He Who triumphs Oarion = Hebrew 'Or, light; or coming forth as light (compare Job 9:9; 38:31. Amos 5:8). Hebrew Kesil = a strong one (translated "Orion" in Job 9:9; 38:31. Amos 5:8). The brightest star is Betelgeuz = the coming of the Branch (Malachi 3:2). The next is Rigel or Rigol = the foot of him that crusheth. The next is Bellatrix = swiftly destroying. Another is Al Nitak = the wounded One. Many others with names of cumulative meanings. (See Isaiah 42:13, 14; 60:1 - 3. )
ERIDANUS. The river of judgment. In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Peh-ta-t = the mouth of the river. The brightest star is Achernar = the after part of the river. So with the other names, going forth, flowing on (to the lower regions of the south). Daniel 7:9 -11. Psalm 97:3 -5; 50:3. Habakkuk 3:5. Isaiah 30:27 - 33. Nahum 1:5, 6. Isaiah 66:15, 16. 2 Thessalonians 1:7, 8.
AURIGA. The Shepherd. (Isaiah 40:10, 11. Ezekiel 34:22). Auriga = Charioteer. The brightest star is Alioth = a she-goat. Modern Latin name is Capella, same meaning. The next is Menkilinon = the band of the goats; bound, never to be again lost. (John 10:11. ) In the Zodiac of Denderah, the shepherd carries a sceptre (Trun), the top with a goat, and bottom with a cross. (Malachi 4:1 - 3. Psalm 37:38 - 40).
GEMINI The Twins. Name in the Zodiac of Denderah is Clusus or Claustrum Hori = the place of Him Who cometh. The old Coptic name was Pi-Mahi = the united. Hebrew Thaumim (from ta'am) = double. The root used in Exodus 26:24 (twinned together). The brightest star is Apollo = ruler or judge. The next is Hercules = who cometh to labour and suffer. Another is Al Henah = hurt, wounded. (Isaiah 4:2; 32:1, 2. Jeremiah 23:5, 6; 33:14, 15. )
LEPUS ( the enemy trodden under foot). In the Zodiac of Denderah the name is Bashti- beki = falling confounded. Aratus says "chased eternally". The brightest star is Arnebo = the enemy of Him Who cometh. Others stars are Nibal = the mad; Rakis, the bound; Sugia, the deceiver. (Isaiah 63:3, 4. )
CANIS MAJOR. Sirius, The Prince. In Zodiac of Denderah it is Apes = the head. In Persian Planisphere= a wolf (Hebrew Ze'eb). The brightest star is Sirius = the Prince. In Persian Tistrya or Tistar = the chieftain. The next is Mirzam = the prince. Another is Wesen = the shining, and another Adhara = the glorious. Many other cognate names (Isaiah 9:6; 55:4. Daniel 8:23, 25. )
CANIS MINOR. The second Dog. In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Sebak = conquering, victorious. The brightest star Procyon = Redeemer. The next is Gomeisa (Arabic) = the burdened, bearing for others. Many other cognate names. (Isaiah 49:24 - 26; 59:19, 20; 53:12).
CANCER. The Crab. Messiah's possessions held fast. In the Zodiac of Denderah and Esneh it is a sacred beetle. It name there given is Klaria = cattle-folds. Arabic name is Al Sarta'n = He Who holds or binds together (Genesis 49:11). The Greek name is Karkinos = encircling; the same as the Latin Cancer, from Arabic Khan an Inn, and Ker, or Cer = encircling. The ancient Accadian is Su-kul-na = the seizer, or possessor of seed. A bright cluster is called Praesepe = a multitude or offspring. The brightest star is Tegmine = holding. Another is Acubene = the sheltering or hiding place. Another, Ma'alaph = assembled thousands. North and south of Praesepe are two bright stars, Assellus North and Assellus South: their sign is a, and called the two ***** , thus connecting it with Cancer, which is the sign of Issachar (compare Genesis 49:14. Numbers 2:5).
URSA MINOR. The little Bear = the lesser sheep-fold. The brightest star of Ursa Minor is Dubheh = a herd. Arabic Dubah means cattle. Hebrew Dober = a fold, from dobe' = rest or security, rendered "strength" in Deuteronomy 33:25. See Revised Version margin. All points to this (compare Judges 5:16). The Hebrew Dob = a bear. So Arabic Dub, and Persian Deeb or Dob. Hence the mistake. The brightest star is Al riccaba = the turned or ridden on, denoting it as the Polar star. The Greeks called it Kunosoura = Cynosure, but this word is Accadian. An-nas-sur-ra = high in rising; or high in heavenly position. The next bright star is Kochab = waiting Him Who cometh.
URSA MAJOR. The great Bear = the Fold and the Flock (Obadiah 17 - 19). In Job 9:9 and 38:31, 32, it is called 'Ash and her offspring. Authorized Version = Arcturus and her sons. Revised Version = Bear and his train (margin, sons). Arabs still call it Al Naish or Annaish = the assembled together as in a fold. The brightest star is Dubhe = a flock, which gives its name to the two constellations. The next is Merach = the flock (Arabic = purchased). The next is Phaeda or Pharda = numbered or guarded (Psalm 147:4). Another is called Benet Naish = daughters of the assembly. Another, Al Kaid = the assembled. Many other cognate names. (Compare Ezekiel 34:12 - 16. )
ARGO. The Ship = the Pilgrims, safe at home. In the Egyptian Planisphere there are two ships (like the two folds). They occupy one-half of the south meridians. The brightest star in Canopus = the possession of Him Who cometh. Other names are Sephina = the multitude. Tureis = the possession. Asmidiska = the released who travel, etc. (See Jeremiah 30:10, 11. Isaiah 60:4 - 9. )
LEO. The Lion. Messiah's consummated triumph. In the Zodiac of Denderah it is Pi Mentikeon = the pouring out (of Divine wrath). The three constellations crystallize the truth.
1. Hydra = the old serpent destroyed.
2. Crater = the cup of wrath poured out on him.
3. Corvus = the bird of prey devouring him.
The Denderah picture exhibits all four in one. The Syriac name is Aryo = the rending lion. Arabic Al Asad = the lion leaping forth as a flame. The brightest star is Regulus = treading under foot (as pictured). The next is Denebola = the Judge or Lord Who cometh. The next is Al Giebha = the exaltation. Another is Zosma = shining forth. All the others are cognate. (Genesis 49:8, 9. Numbers 24:8, 9. Amos 3:4, 8. Isaiah 42:13. )
HYDRA. The Old Serpent. Hydra = he is abhorred. The brightest star is Cor Hydra = the heart of Hydra. Its ancient name is Al phard = the put away. Another is Al Drian = the abhorred. Another is Minchar al Sugia = the piercing of the deceiver.
CRATER. The Cup [of wrath poured out] (Psalm 75:8; 11:6. Revelation 14:10; 16:19. ) The constellation has thirteen stars, (compare appendix 10).
CORVUS. The Raven. The birds of prey devouring. The name in the Zodiac of Denderah, Her-na = the enemy breaking up. There are nine stars (see Appendix 10). The brightest star is Chiba (Numbers 23:8) = accursed. Another is Minchar al Gorab = the raven tearing to pieces.
Thus end the Scriptures of the Heavens. This is the story they tell forth. This is the "speech" they "utter". This is the "knowledge" they "shew forth". There is no articulate speech or voice; and no words are heard; but their sayings have gone out into all the world (Psalm 19:1 - 6).
They are "for SEASONS".
Not only are the stars made for signs ('othoth, from the root 'athah = to come), but for Seasons. These are not the four seasons of the year, but Cycles of time. The figure Polysyndeton (see Appendix 6) in Genesis 1:14 emphasises this: "and for seasons, and for days, and years". The word means appointed times. (Compare Genesis 17:21; 18:14; 21:2. ) Thus the sun, moon, and stars are for "signs" (things to come), and for "seasons" (appointed times).
There are no less than ten of these cycles, all of them different; not concentric, but yet all of them coinciding at creation, but never since: like number of hoops of different sizes hanging from a nail. This shows that they must have had a given simultaneous start.
The cycle of 24 hours for the day, an evening and morning.
The revolution of the Moon round the earth.
The lunar cycle, which began at the same moment as the solar cycle.
The daily revolution of the Sun, which places him on the meridian at noon each day.
The Solar Cycle, coinciding with the first of the seven years of lunar motion and repeating itself every 365 days.
The beginning of a Week of seven days on the first day of the week, of the first month of the first year of the first solar cycle.
The first Eclipse of a cycle of eighteen years and eleven days, to which the ancient astronomers gave the name of Saros; each Saros containing an average of seventy eclipses, divided into two portions of 594 years and 666 years, making together 1,260 years.
Beside these, there is the period of the Heliacal risings of Sirius, in a cycle of 162 years.
The Transits of Venus,
And the grand cycle known as the Precession of the Equinoxes.
All these combine and unite in showing that the chronology of Archbishop Usher was substantially correct. And this proves that the inflated chronology of modern historians and theologians is entirely unscientific, being the hypothesis of men who dabbled in things outside their own sphere, and of which they were incompetent to form a correct judgment.